Recycling the Tower in the Park for Retirees
No one plans to get old; it just happens. Real-estate fantasies, however, tend to be ageless. To misquote the late Nora Ephron, we’ve been having the same real-estate fantasy for decades. And though we’ve varied it a little - what we’re wearing - Greenwich Village, with its organically evolved and artificially preserved mix of row houses, local businesses, and effervescent street life, remains an archetype of good urban planning.
Though they weren’t built with seniors in mind, towers in the park have evolved into something of a model for aging in place: they have wide hallways that accommodate wheelchairs, elevators, access to stores just around the superblock, and (for longtime residents) already established social ties.
In New York State, buildings with a large population of seniors—usually between 40 and 50 percent of residents—can be designated as naturally occurring retirement communities, or NORCs, and get funding for support services such as health-care management and social work programs. Since the first NORCs received government funding in 1994, the number in New York City alone has reached 37, part of the state’s total of 52. "The tower in the park was this modernist ideology, and it was planned to be sort of universal," says Georgeen Theodore, principal of the Brooklyn architecture and planning firm Interboro Partners. "It wasn’t universal in any way, but ended up being great for a particular group."
Morningside Gardens, Manhattan. Courtesy of Interboro Partners.
Theodore and two colleagues, Interboro principals Daniel D’Oca and Tobias Armborst, began a study of NORCs in New York in 2010 and are turning their research into a book, A Guide to NORCs in NYC. This fall, D’Oca and Theodore are each teaching a class—D’Oca at Harvard’s Graduate School of Design, Theodore at the New Jersey Institute of Technology’s School of Architecture—on age-friendly design in cities and suburbs.
Though NORCs occur in rental buildings in New York, many of these communities owe their existence to post–World War II affordable housing initiatives. Some of the projects were built with urban renewal funds, while others were sponsored by labor unions as moderate-income housing co-ops. These limited-equity co-ops, such as Penn South in Manhattan and Co-op City in the Bronx, are essentially a recipe for aging in place. Owners could buy in at below-market prices but were also required to sell at a low price if they ever wanted to move. And as market housing prices in the city climbed, the greater the appeal of staying in the co-op. “One reason seniors are in them is they’ve never had any incentive to leave,” says D’Oca.
This post originally appeared on Dwell, an Atlantic partner site.